- mugal Empire
Emperor Akbar, also known as Akbar the Great or Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar, was the third emperor of the Mughal Empire, after Babur and Humayun.While his father was hiding in the Thar Desert, in a Rajput fort in Umarkot (now in Pakistan), under the protection of Hindus, Akbar was born to Hamida in October 1542. His education had not gone well both because of the stress of a family on the run as well as his inability to learn to read or write, surely because of dyslexia. Humayun was forced into exile by Afghan leader Sher Shah and Akbar spent his childhood in Afghanistan, at his uncle Askari's place. His youth was spent in running and fighting, rather than learning to read and write. However, this could never impair his interest in art, architecture, music and literature. Akbar was raised in the rugged country of Afghanistan rather than amongst the splendor of the Delhi court. He spent his youth learning to hunt, run, and fight and never found time to read or write.he first battle fought by Akbar was against Sikandar Shah Suri of Punjab. However, when Akbar was busy leading assault against Sikandar Shah, Hemu, a Hindu warrior, launched an attack on Delhi, which was then under the regency of Tardi Beg Khan. After dealing with the rebellion of Bairam Khan and establishing his authority, Akbar went on to expand the Mughal empire by subjugating local chiefs and annexing neighbouring.Akbar came to throne in 1556, after the death of his father, Humayun. At that time, Akbar was only 13 years old.
Emperor Birth Reign Period Death
1. Zaheeruddin Babur Feb 23, 1483 1526-1530 Founder of the Mughal Dynasty.
2. Nasiruddin Muhammad Humayun Mar 6, 1508 1530-1540
3. Sher Shah Suri 1472 1540-1545 May 1545 Deposed
4. Islam Shah Suri c.1500 1545-1554 1554
5. Nasiruddin Muhammad Humayun Mar 6, 1508 1555-1556
6. Jalaluddin Mohammed Akbar Nov 14, 1542 1556-1605
7. Nuruddin Mohammed Jahangir Oct 1569 1605-1627
8. Shahabuddin Mohammed Shah Jahan Jan 5, 1592 1627-1658
9. Mohiuddin Mohammed Aurangzeb Alamgir Oct 21, 1618 1658-1707 Mar 3, 1707
10. Bahadur Shah II Oct 14, 1643 1707-1712 Feb 1712
11. Jahandar Shah 1664 1712-1713 Feb 1713
12. Furrukhsiyar 1683 1713-1719 1719 In 1717
13. Rafi Ul-Darjat Unknown 1719 1719
14. Rafi Ud-Daulat nknown 1719 1719
a.k.a Shah Jahan II Unknown 1719 1719
15. Nikusiyar Unknown 1719 1743
16. Muhammad Ibrahim Unknown 1720 1744
17. Muhammad Shah 1702 1719-1720, 1720-1748 1748
18. Ahmad Shah Bahadur 1725 1748-54 1754
19. Alamgir II 1699 1754-1759 1759
20. Shah Jahan III Unknown In 1759 1770s
21. Shah Alam II 1728 1759-1806 1806
22. Akbar Shah II 1760 1806-1837 1837
23. Bahadur Shah Zafar 1775 1837-
The Slave Dynasty (A.D. 1206-1920)
The Indian slave dynasty lasted from 1206 to 1290. The slave dynasty was the first Muslim dynasty to rule India. It is said that Muhammad Ghori did not have a natural heir to the throne and he the habit of treating his slaves like his own children.
After Qutabuddin his son Aram Shah succeeded to the throne. He was not able to rule the country as his forerunners. The nobles elected Iltumish to take charge of the situation. This led to a battle, in which Aram shah was defeated and killed. Iltumish ascended the throne in 1211. He was the sultan of Delhi and also known in history as Shamsuddin. He recaptured all the lost territories of Qutabuddin, and also added Malwa and Sind to his realm. He fought against the rival slave chiefs Yildiz and Qabacha.
He ruled from 1211 to 1236. Under his strong governance, the slave dynasty was able to find a strong footing and establish itself as an important kingdom.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iltutmish
The second ruler of the Khilji dynasty in India was Alauddin Khilji. He was the nephew as well as the son-in-law of Jalal-ud-Din Khilji. During the reign of Jalal-ud-Din Khilji, Alauddin Khilji was appointed the Governor of Awadh and Kara. However, he wanted to consolidate his position by becoming the ruler of the Khilji dynasty. Due to his ambitious nature, he killed Jalal-ud-Din Khilji, marched to Delhi and proclaimed himself as the king. Allauddin Khilji died of edema in 1316 AD, leaving behind the great Khilji dynasty to his successor Qutb-ud-din Mubarak Shah. Amongst the numerous contributions of the Khilji dynasty, the great work of the prominent Persian poet and laureate of Alauddin's court, Amir Khusro is famous.
The Tughlaqs (A.D. 1320-1412)
Lodi Dynasty (A.D. 1451-1526)
Rajendra Chola I
Rajendra Chola I, the son of Rajaraja Chola I, the great Chola king of South India, succeeded his father in 1014 c.e. as the Chola emperor. During his reign, he extended the influences of the already vast Chola empire to the banks of the river Ganges in the north and across the ocean. Rajendra’s territories extended to coastal Burma, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Maldives, conquering the kings of Srivijaya (Sumatra, Java, and Malaya in South East Asia) and the Pegu islands with his fleet of ships. He defeated Mahipala, the Pala king of Bengal and Bihar. The closing years of Rajendra forms the most splendid period of Cholas.
The extent of the empire was the widest and the military and naval prestige was at its highest. The emperor was ably assisted by his sons and other members of his family. The Chola imperialism was a benevolent one attested by the presence of the traditional rulers in the Pandya and Kerala countries and the act of reinstating the Srivijaya king after his defeat. Under this great king the dynasty flourished in all aspects including art and literature. Numerous sculptures were also found like the bronze image of Nataraja. The Chola Kingdom began to disintegrate and it declined after his death.
17. Rajendra Chola III 1246–1279
he main branch of the Gupta dynasty ruled the Gupta Empire in India, from around 320 to 550. This dyansty was founded by Srigupta. The rulers are:
* Chandragupta II
* Kumaragupta I
* Kumaragupta II
* Narasimhagupta Baladitya
Samduragupta was not only a warrior but also a great patron of art and literature.Samudragupta (reigned 335-380) is the second ruler of the Gupta Dynasty, who ushered in the Golden Age in India.Samudragupta, son of Chandragupta, was perhaps the greatest king of Gupta dynasty. His name appears in the Javanese text `Tantrikamandaka'.Samduragupta was not only a warrior but also a great patron of art and literature. The important scholars present in his court were Harishena, Vasubandhu and Asanga. He was a poet and musician himself. He was a firm believer in Hinduism and is known to have worshipped Lord Vishnu.He was considerate of other religions and allowed Sri Lanka's Buddhist king to build a monastery at Bodh Gaya. Samudragupta displayed greater foresight in his conquests and in the administration and consolidation of his empire.http://www.indianetzone.com/22/art_architecture_gupta_period.htm
Emperor Reign start Reign end
Bindusara 297 BCE 272 BCE
Asoka the Great 273 BCE 232 BCE
Dasaratha 232 BCE 224 BCE
Samprati 224 BCE 215 BCE
Salisuka 215 BCE 202 BCE
Devavarman 202 BCE 195 BCE
Samduragupta was not only a warrior but also a great patron of art and literature.Samudragupta (reigned 335-380) is the second ruler of the Gupta Dynasty, who ushered in the Golden Age in India.Samudragupta, son of Chandragupta, was perhaps the greatest king of Gupta dynasty. His name appears in the Javanese text `Tantrikamandaka'.Samduragupta was not only a warrior but also a great patron of art and literature. The important scholars present in his court were Harishena, Vasubandhu and Asanga. He was a poet and musician himself. He was a firm believer in Hinduism and is known to have worshipped Lord Vishnu.He was considerate of other religions and allowed Sri Lanka's Buddhist king to build a monastery at Bodh Gaya. Samudragupta displayed greater foresight in his conquests and in the administration and consolidation of his empire.
One of the greatest emperors of all times, Emperor Asoka was a Mauryan ruler whose empire spread across the Indian sub continent and the present day Pakistan and Afghanistan thus covering a vast area. He is known as Asoka the Great since he was one of the most able rulers who ruled India. Asoka was born in 304 BC, to Mauryan Emperor Bindusara and a relatively lower ranked queen, Dharma. The Kalinga War
This was the first and last battle that Ashoka ever fought and serves as a watermark in his life as it changed his course forever. It was during this war that he earned the title Ashoka the Great.The legend associated with the emperor goes that his birth had been predicted by Buddha, in the story of 'The Gift of Dust'. Buddhist Emperor Ashoka had only one younger sibling, Vitthashoka, but, several elder half-brothers.Ashoka was a good administrator and at first set about restoring peace in his kingdom. This took about 3 years, after which he formally accepted the throne and was crowned King in 273 BC.Kalinga war brought great fame to Ashoka. It is, in fact, due to this war that he became Ashoka - the great. It was not so because he won the war, but because he gave up fighting after winning this war. It was because of the transformation that occurred in him.
It was because of the reaction that war had on his mind.Ashoka was initiated into Buddhism, after which his life was completely transformed. He religiously followed the principles of Buddhism - that of truth, charity, kindness, purity and goodness.Buddhist Emperor Asoka built thousands of Stupas and Viharas for Buddhist followers. One of his stupas, the Great Sanchi Stupa, has been declared as a World Heritage Site by UNECSO. The Ashoka Pillar at Sarnath has a four-lion capital, which was later adopted as the national emblem of the modern Indian republic. Throughout his life, 'Asoka the Great' followed the policy of nonviolence or ahimsa.
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